CMSA New Technologies in Mathematics: The Ramanujan Machine: Using Algorithms for the Discovery of Conjectures on Mathematical Constants
Ido Kaminer - Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering
In the past, new conjectures about fundamental constants were discovered sporadically by famous mathematicians such as Newton, Euler, Gauss, and Ramanujan. The talk will present a different approach – a systematic algorithmic approach that discovers new mathematical conjectures on fundamental constants. We call this approach “the Ramanujan Machine”. The algorithms found dozens of well-known formulas as well as previously unknown ones, such as continued fraction representations of π, e, Catalan’s constant, and values of the Riemann zeta function. Some of the conjectures are in retrospect simple to prove, whereas others remain so far unproven. We will discuss these puzzles and wider open questions that arose from this algorithmic investigation – specifically, a newly-discovered algebraic structure that seems to generalize all the known formulas and connect between fundamental constants. We will also discuss two algorithms that proved useful in finding conjectures: a variant of the meet-in-the-middle algorithm and a gradient descent algorithm tailored to the recurrent structure of continued fractions. Both algorithms are based on matching numerical values; consequently, they conjecture formulas without providing proofs or requiring prior knowledge of the underlying mathematical structure. This way, our approach reverses the conventional usage of sequential logic in formal proofs; instead, using numerical data to unveil mathematical structures and provide leads to further mathematical research.