# Calendar

- 04April 4, 2021No events
- 05April 5, 2021
### CMSA Mathematical Physics Seminar: Topological recursion in 4d N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories

According to the Alday-Gaiotto-Tachikawa conjecture (proved in this case by Schiffman and Vasserot), the instanton partition function in 4d N = 2 SU(r) supersymmetric gauge theory on P^2 with equivariant parameters ε₁, ε₂ is the norm of a Whittaker vector for W(gl_r) algebra. I will explain how these Whittaker vectors can be computed (at least perturbatively in the energy scale) by topological recursion for ε₁ + ε₂ = 0, and by a non-commutation version of the topological recursion in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili regime where ε₁/ε₂ is fixed. This is a joint work to appear with Bouchard, Chidambaram and Creutzig.

Zoom: https://harvard.zoom.us/j/91780604388?pwd=d3BqazFwbDZLQng0cEREclFqWkN4UT09

- 06April 6, 2021
### Quasimodular forms from Betti numbers

This talk will be about refined curve counting on local P^2, the noncompact Calabi-Yau 3-fold total space of the canonical line bundle of the projective plane. I will explain how to construct quasimodular forms starting from Betti numbers of moduli spaces of dimension 1 coherent sheaves on P^2. This gives a proof of some stringy predictions about the refined topological string theory of local P^2 in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit. Partly based on work with Honglu Fan, Shuai Guo, and Longting Wu.

Zoom: https://harvard.zoom.us/j/96709211410?pwd=SHJyUUc4NzU5Y1d0N2FKVzIwcmEzdz09

### CMSA Math Science Literature Lecture Series

**TITLE:**Isadore Singer’s Work on Analytic Torsion**ABSTRACT**: I will review two famous papers of Ray and Singer on analytic torsion written approximately half a century ago. Then I will sketch the influence of analytic torsion in a variety of areas of physics including anomalies, topological field theory, and string theory.*Talk chair: Cumrun Vafa*Written articles will accompany each lecture in this series and be available as part of the publication

**“****History and Literature of Mathematical Science****.”**For more information, please visit

**the event page**.##### Register here to attend.

### Conjugation of words, self-intersections of planar curves, and non-commutative divergence

The space spanned by homotopy classes of free oriented loops on a 2-manifold carries an interesting algebraic structure (a Lie bialgebra structure) due to Goldman and Turaev. This structure is defined in terms of intersections and self-intersections of planar curves. In the talk, we will explain a surprising link between the Gaoldman-Turaev theory and the Kashiwara-Vergne problem on properties of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series. Important tools in establishing this link are the non-commutative divergence cocycle and a novel characterization of conjugacy classes in free Lie algebras in terms of cyclic words. The talk is based on joint works with N. Kawazumi, Y. Kuno and F. Naef.

Zoom: https://harvard.zoom.us/j/779283357?pwd=MitXVm1pYUlJVzZqT3lwV2pCT1ZUQT09

### Conjugation of words, self-intersections of planar curves, and non-commutative divergence

The space spanned by homotopy classes of free oriented loops on a 2-manifold carries an interesting algebraic structure (a Lie bialgebra structure) due to Goldman and Turaev. This structure is defined in terms of intersections and self-intersections of planar curves. In the talk, we will explain a surprising link between the Gaoldman-Turaev theory and the Kashiwara-Vergne problem on properties of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff series. Important tools in establishing this link are the non-commutative divergence cocycle and a novel characterization of conjugacy classes in free Lie algebras in terms of cyclic words. The talk is based on joint works with N. Kawazumi, Y. Kuno and F. Naef.

Zoom: https://harvard.zoom.us/j/779283357?pwd=MitXVm1pYUlJVzZqT3lwV2pCT1ZUQT09

### CMSA Computer Science for Mathematicians: Confidence-Budget Matching for Sequential Budgeted Learning

A core element in decision-making under uncertainty is the feedback on the quality of the performed actions. However, in many applications, such feedback is restricted. For example, in recommendation systems, repeatedly asking the user to provide feedback on the quality of recommendations will annoy them. In this work, we formalize decision-making problems with querying budget, where there is a (possibly time-dependent) hard limit on the number of reward queries allowed. Specifically, we consider multi-armed bandits, linear bandits, and reinforcement learning problems. We start by analyzing the performance of `greedy’ algorithms that query a reward whenever they can. We show that in fully stochastic settings, doing so performs surprisingly well, but in the presence of any adversity, this might lead to linear regret. To overcome this issue, we propose the Confidence-Budget Matching (CBM) principle that queries rewards when the confidence intervals are wider than the inverse square root of the available budget. We analyze the performance of CBM based algorithms in different settings and show that they perform well in the presence of adversity in the contexts, initial states, and budgets.

Joint work with Yonathan Efroni, Aadirupa Saha and Shie Mannor.

- 07April 7, 2021
### CMSA Quantum Matter in Mathematics and Physics: Higher Form Symmetries in string/M-theory

In this talk, I will give an overview of recent developments in geometric constructions of field theory in string/M-theory and identifying higher form symmetries. The main focus will be on d>= 4 constructed from string/M-theory. I will also discuss realization in terms of holographic models in string theory. In the talk next week Lakshya Bhardwaj will speak about 1-form symmetries in class S, N=1 deformations thereof and the relation to confinement.

### Joint Dept. of Mathematics and CMSA Random Matrix & Probability Theory Seminar: Householder Dice: A Matrix-Free Algorithm for Simulating Dynamics on Random Matrices

In many problems in statistical learning, random matrix theory, and statistical physics, one needs to simulate dynamics on random matrix ensembles. A classical example is to use iterative methods to compute the extremal eigenvalues/eigenvectors of a (spiked) random matrix. Other examples include approximate message passing on dense random graphs, and gradient descent algorithms for solving learning and estimation problems with random initialization. We will show that all such dynamics can be simulated by an efficient matrix-free scheme, if the random matrix is drawn from an ensemble with translation-invariant properties. Examples of such ensembles include the i.i.d. Gaussian (i.e. the rectangular Ginibre) ensemble, the Haar-distributed random orthogonal ensemble, the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble, and their complex-valued counterparts.

A “direct” approach to the simulation, where one first generates a dense n × n matrix from the ensemble, requires at least O(n^2) resource in space and time. The new algorithm, named Householder Dice (HD), overcomes this O(n^2) bottleneck by using the principle of deferred decisions: rather than fixing the entire random matrix in advance, it lets the randomness unfold with the dynamics. At the heart of this matrix-free algorithm is an adaptive and recursive construction of (random) Householder reflectors. These orthogonal transformations exploit the group symmetry of the matrix ensembles, while simultaneously maintaining the statistical correlations induced by the dynamics. The memory and computation costs of the HD algorithm are O(nT) and O(n T^2), respectively, with T being the number of iterations. When T ≪ n, which is nearly always the case in practice, the new algorithm leads to significant reductions in runtime and memory footprint.

Finally, the HD algorithm is not just a computational trick. I will show how its construction can serve as a simple proof technique for several problems in high-dimensional estimation.

### The motivic Satake equivalence

The geometric Satake equivalence due to Lusztig, Drinfeld, Ginzburg, Mirković and Vilonen is an indispensable tool in the Langlands program. Versions of this equivalence are known for different cohomology theories such as Betti cohomology or algebraic D-modules over characteristic zero fields and $\ell$-adic cohomology over arbitrary fields. In this talk, I explain how to apply the theory of motivic complexes as developed by Voevodsky, Ayoub, Cisinski-Déglise and many others to the construction of a motivic Satake equivalence. Under suitable cycle class maps, it recovers the classical equivalence. As dual group, one obtains a certain extension of the Langlands dual group by a one dimensional torus. A key step in the proof is the construction of intersection motives on affine Grassmannians. A direct consequence of their existence is an unconditional construction of IC-Chow groups of moduli stacks of shtukas. My hope is to obtain on the long run independence-of-$\ell$ results in the work of V. Lafforgue on the Langlands correspondence for function fields. This is ongoing joint work with Jakob Scholbach from Münster.

Zoom: https://harvard.zoom.us/j/99334398740

Password: The order of the permutation group on 9 elements.

### CMSA New Technologies in Mathematics: Type Theory from the Perspective of Artificial Intelligence

This talk will discuss dependent type theory from the perspective of artificial intelligence and cognitive science. From an artificial intelligence perspective it will be argued that type theory is central to defining the “game” of mathematics — an action space and reward structure for pure mathematics. From a cognitive science perspective type theory provides a model of the grammar of the colloquial (natural) language of mathematics. Of particular interest is the notion of a signature-axiom structure class and the three fundamental notions of equality in mathematics — set-theoretic equality between structure elements, isomorphism between structures, and Birkoff and Rota’s notion of cryptomorphism between structure classes. This talk will present a version of type theory based on set-theoretic semantics and the 1930’s notion of structure and isomorphism given by the Bourbaki group of mathematicians. It will be argued that this “Bourbaki type theory” (BTT) is more natural and accessible to classically trained mathematicians than Martin-Löf type theory (MLTT). BTT avoids the Curry-Howard isomorphism and axiom J of MLTT. The talk will also discuss BTT as a model of MLTT. The BTT model is similar to the groupoid model in that propositional equality is interpreted as isomorphism but different in various details. The talk will also briefly mention initial thoughts in defining an action space and reward structure for a game of mathematics.

Zoom: https://harvard.zoom.us/j/99018808011?pwd=SjRlbWFwVms5YVcwWURVN3R3S2tCUT09

### Outward-facing mathematics

I will talk, pretty casually, about random walks, which I first learned about as part of my Harvard undergrad thesis in finite group theory, and which turn out to be at the heart of the mathematical analysis of gerrymandering; along the way I will talk about the project of doing mathematics in a way that engages with the world outside the math department walls.

Please go to the College Calendar to register.

Zoom: https://calendar.college.

harvard.edu/event/open_ neighborhood_seminar Website: https://math.harvard.edu/ons

- 08April 8, 2021
### CMSA Math Science Literature Lecture Series

**TITLE:**Quantum error correcting codes and fault tolerance**ABSTRACT**: We will go over the fundamentals of quantum error correction and fault tolerance and survey some of the recent developments in the field.*Talk chair: Zhengwei Liu*Written articles will accompany each lecture in this series and be available as part of the publication

**“****History and Literature of Mathematical Science****.”**For more information, please visit

**the event page**.##### Register here to attend.

### CMSA Interdisciplinary Science Seminar: Supergeometry and Super Riemann Surfaces of Genus Zero

Supergeometry is a mathematical theory of geometric spaces with anti-commuting coordinates and functions which is motivated by the concept of supersymmetry from theoretical physics. I will explain the functorial approach to supermanifolds by Molotkov and Sachse. Super Riemann surfaces are an interesting supergeometric generalization of Riemann surfaces. I will present a differential geometric approach to their classification in the case of genus zero and with Neveu-Schwarz punctures.

Zoom: https://harvard.zoom.us/j/98248914765?pwd=Q01tRTVWTVBGT0lXek40VzdxdVVPQT09

(Password: 419419)

### CMSA Quantum Matter in Mathematics and Physics: Chiral edge modes, thermoelectric transport, and the Third Law of Thermodynamics

In this talk, I will discuss several issues related to thermoelectric transport, with application to topological invariants of chiral topological phases in two dimensions. In the first part of the talk, I will argue in several different ways that the only topological invariants associated with anomalous edge transport are the Hall conductance and the thermal Hall conductance. Thermoelectric coefficients are shown to vanish at zero temperature and do not give rise to topological invariants. In the second part of the talk, I will describe microscopic formulas for transport coefficients (Kubo formulas) which are valid for arbitrary interacting lattice systems. I will show that in general “textbook” Kubo formulas require corrections. This is true even for some dissipative transport coefficients, such as Seebeck and Peltier coefficients. I will also make a few remarks about “matching” (in the sense of Effective Field Theory) between microscopic descriptions of transport and hydrodynamics.

- 09April 9, 2021
### Canonical heights and vector heights in families

Canonical heights are a standard tool of arithmetic dynamics over global fields. When studying families of dynamical systems, or systems over larger fields, however, there are significant geometric obstacles to constructing canonical heights. Either Northcott fails to hold, or the construction requires a model for the family with such strict properties (good reduction, minimality, extensions of rational maps,…) that such a model is unlikely to exist outside of very special settings. Instead, I’ll show how to resolve this problem using vector-valued heights, first introduced in characteristic zero by Yuan and Zhang. These generalize R-valued heights, produce canonical heights for any polarized dynamical system, and exhibit Northcott finiteness conditional on a strong non-isotriviality condition, generalizing work of Lang-Neron, Baker, and Chatzidakis-Hrushovski. This is achieved by working simultaneously over a system of models with much weaker requirements. As part of ongoing work, I’ll show how these arithmetic methods can produce results that hold over any field, and discuss how this can extend to quasi-projective varieties as well as projective varieties.

Go to http://people.math.harvard.

edu/~demarco/ for Zoom information.AlgebraicDynamics/ - 10April 10, 2021No events